In Latin American historiography, José Carlos Chiaramonte has paid particular attention to the issue of the emergence of the nation, especially in his more recent works. He now returns to the subject once again in this reflection on 18th and 19th century uses of the concept of nation in Europe and the Americas. “We wonder -as the author puts it- whether it is right for the historian to ask himself questions about what he can conceive of, or define, as nation, or whether he should be referring these questions to the actors themselves who used this concept in their own time and place and so make inquiries into the circumstances in which this term was used, the whys and hows and what realities they referred to. What we must strive to explain to ourselves is not the nation, but the political organism that could be referred to as nation, as well as ‘republic’, ‘state’, ‘province’, ‘city’, ‘sovereignty’, or any other name.” This book covers the whole of Latin America in general, making use of the valuable tool of comparative viewpoints. The different national intonations of the concept of sovereignty and the nuances of the federal and confederate forms of the state are examined in focus for the case of Rio de la Plata. About the AuthorJosé Carlos Chiaramonte is Profesor Honorario at the Universidad de Buenos Aires and a Senior Researcher for CONICET, Argentina’s National Scientific and Technological Research Council. He is Director of the Instituto de Historia Argentina y Americana “Dr. Emilio Ravignani” (UBA). His published works include Nacionalismo y liberalismo económicos en Argentina 1860-1880 (1970), La Ilustración en el Río de la Plata (1989), Mercaderes del Litoral (1991), Ciudades, provincias, Estados. Orígenes de la nación argentina 1800-1846 (1997), and Fundamentos intelectuales y políticos de las independencias (2010). The present work was published originally in Spanish in 2004 as Nación y Estado en Iberoamérica. El lenguaje político en tiempos de las independencias.